[研習] 校園兒童安全瀏覽網路設定 BIND9 RPZ

要讓校園內學生使用的電腦強制開啟 Google 安全搜尋或是啟用 youtube 嚴格搜尋
就需要用到 DNS CNAME 功能
以下就來從無到有做一台學生專用的 DNS 為示範

測試環境

安裝 BIND

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install bind9

( 如果光碟安裝 記得改 /etc/apt/sources.list 把光碟 cdrom 那行註解掉 )

設定 BIND

切換到 bind 設定檔目錄

cd /etc/bind

編輯 named.conf.options

sudo vi named.conf.options
options {
        directory "/var/cache/bind";
        response-policy { zone "rpz"; };

建立 zone.rpz

sudo vi zone.rpz
zone "rpz" IN {
 type master;
 file "/etc/bind/db.rpz.zone";
 allow-query {none;};
};

修改 named.conf.local 讓系統把 zone.rpz 吃進來

sudo vi named.conf.local
//上略
//include "/etc/bind/zones.rfc1918";
include "/etc/bind/zone.rpz";

建立 db.rpz.zone

sudo vi db.rpz.zone
$TTL 1H
$ORIGIN rpz.
@   IN  SOA localhost. nobody.localhost (
            2015103102
            1h
            15m
            30d
            2h )
            NS localhost.

; google safe search
www.google.com          IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.tw       IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.

BIND 基本操作

啟用服務

sudo systemctl start bind9

停用服務

sudo systemctl stop bind9

或用 sudo rndc stop

重啟服務

sudo systemctl restart bind9

sudo rndc reload

檢測 conf 檔

named-checkconf -z /etc/bind/named.conf

檢測 zone db 檔

named-checkzone -d rpz db.rpz.zone

一開始安裝完預設 BIND 是啟用的
改好設定檔之後檢測無誤 就可以 restart 一下就搞定了

youtube 嚴格(安全)搜尋

依照官方設定可以強迫啟用嚴格搜尋
可以過濾掉大部分的敏感內容

; youtube safe search
www.youtube.com         IN CNAME restrict.youtube.com.
m.youtube.com           IN CNAME restrict.youtube.com.
youtubei.googleapis.com IN CNAME restrict.youtube.com.
www.youtube-nocookie.com    IN CNAME restrict.youtube.com.

阻擋 IP 規則

Policy Trigger (LH name) 採用: prefix.a4.a3.a2.a1.rpz-ip (沒有點.)

例如 阻擋 IP 12.23.34.45 讓他回報 NXDOMAIN 為例 db.rpz.zone 裡面要寫

32.45.34.23.12.rpz-ip    IN CNAME .

例如 阻擋 IP 12.23.34.* 讓他回報 NXDOMAIN 為例 db.rpz.zone 裡面要寫

24.45.34.23.12.rpz-ip    IN CNAME .

範例

本文的設定檔都放在 github 需要的請自取

google ccTLD 問題

Google 區段要滴水不漏的話 得要把全部的 Google ccTLD subbomains 都吃進來

www.google.com       IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.ad        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.ae        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.af    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.ag    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.ai    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.al        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.am        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.co.ao     IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.ar    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.as        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.at        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.au    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.az        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.ba        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.bd    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.be        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.bf        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.bg        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.bh    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.bi        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.bj        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.bn    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.bo    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.br    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.bs        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.bt        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.co.bw     IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.by        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.bz    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.ca        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.cd        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.cf        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.cg        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.ch        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.ci        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.co.ck     IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.cl        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.cm        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.cn        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.co    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.co.cr     IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.cu    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.cv        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.cy    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.cz        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.de        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.dj        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.dk        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.dm        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.do    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.dz        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.ec    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.ee        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.eg    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.es        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.et    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.fi        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.fj    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.fm        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.fr        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.ga        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.ge        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.gg        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.gh    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.gi    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.gl        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.gm        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.gp        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.gr        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.gt    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.gy        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.hk    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.hn        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.hr        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.ht        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.hu        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.co.id     IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.ie        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.co.il     IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.im        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.co.in     IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.iq        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.is        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.it        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.je        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.jm    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.jo        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.co.jp     IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.co.ke     IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.kh    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.ki        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.kg        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.co.kr     IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.kw    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.kz        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.la        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.lb    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.li        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.lk        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.co.ls     IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.lt        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.lu        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.lv        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.ly    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.co.ma     IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.md        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.me        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.mg        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.mk        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.ml        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.mm    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.mn        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.ms        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.mt    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.mu        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.mv        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.mw        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.mx    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.my    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.co.mz     IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.na    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.nf    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.ng    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.ni    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.ne        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.nl        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.no        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.np    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.nr        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.nu        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.co.nz     IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.om    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.pa    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.pe    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.pg    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.ph    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.pk    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.pl        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.pn        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.pr    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.ps        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.pt        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.py    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.qa    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.ro        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.ru        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.rw        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.sa    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.sb    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.sc        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.se        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.sg    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.sh        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.si        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.sk        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.sl    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.sn        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.so        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.sm        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.sr        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.st        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.sv    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.td        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.tg        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.co.th     IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.tj    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.tk        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.tl        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.tm        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.tn        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.to        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.tr    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.tt        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.tw    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.co.tz     IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.ua    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.co.ug     IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.co.uk     IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.uy    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.co.uz     IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.vc    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.co.ve     IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.vg        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.co.vi     IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.com.vn    IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.vu        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.ws        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.rs        IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.co.za     IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.co.zm     IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.co.zw     IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.
www.google.cat       IN CNAME forcesafesearch.google.com.

常見錯誤

IPv6 查詢錯誤

Nov 12 02:25:44 tt named[453]: error (network unreachable) resolving './NS/IN': 2001:200:5f::f#53
Nov 12 02:25:44 tt named[453]: error (network unreachable) resolving './NS/IN': 2001:303:a27::2:30#53
Nov 12 02:25:44 tt named[453]: error (network unreachable) resolving './NS/IN': 2001:abc::35#53
Nov 12 02:25:44 tt named[453]: error (network unreachable) resolving './NS/IN': 2001:def::53#53
Nov 12 02:25:44 tt named[453]: error (network unreachable) resolving './NS/IN': 2001:7cc::1#53

這就直接把 bind 強制用 IPv4 模式跑
編輯 /lib/systemd/system/bind9.service

上略
[Service]
ExecStart=/usr/sbin/named -f -4 -u bind
ExecReload=/usr/sbin/rndc reload
ExecStop=/usr/sbin/rndc stop
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl restart bind9

RRSIG 問題

如果沒有時間不對 可能造成簽章驗證檢查不過

Nov 12 02:44:57 tt named[2114]: validating @0x7f317c044810: . NS: no valid signature found
Nov 12 02:44:57 tt named[2114]: error (no valid RRSIG) resolving './NS/IN': 123.234.123.234#53
Nov 12 02:44:57 tt named[2114]: validating @0x7f317c044810: . NS: verify failed due to bad signature (keyid=62530): RRSIG validity period has not begun

解決方法: 把時間修正
以下兩步驟

  • 檢查時區設定

    dpkg-reconfigure tzdata

  • 網路校時

    sudo apt-get install ntpdate
    ntpdate clock.stdtime.gov.tw

error (no valid DS) 問題

關閉 DNSSEC
編輯 /etc/bind/named.conf.options

//dnssec-validation auto;
dnssec-validation no;

ref:
http://www.cwssoft.com/?p=1577
https://support.google.com/websearch/answer/186669

Click to access d1-07.pdf


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